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Addison's Disease is an autoimmune disease in which the adrenal glands (small glands located above the kidneys) do not work properly or stop working altogether. The adrenal glands produce many hormones, including cortisol, which helps the body maintain heart function, blood pressure control, and blood glucose control. Addison’s disease sometimes occurs with type 1 diabetes.

a conditions in which high levels of protein called albumin are found in the urine. Too much can often be a sign of early kidney disease.

Alternate Site Testing (AST) refers to using parts of the body other than the fingertips to obtain blood for blood glucose testing

Alpha Cells are found in the Islets of Langerhans within your pancreas. They are responsible for producing glucagon, a hormone which causes an increase in the blood sugar level.


Animal Insulin is the original form of insulin that was obtained from the pancreases of pigs and cows.

Autoimmune Disease is a disorder in which a person's own antibodies destroy body tissues, such as the beta cells in the pancreas

Basal. Your body usually needs a small amount of insulin to hold everything steady, even if you've not eaten food. On injections this is usually provided by the long-acting insulin. A pump gives you a small amount all the time, called the basal rate.

Basal/Bolus Insulin Administration (occasionally referred to as the Poor Man's pump). 
Using several daily injections of fast-acting insulin (such as NovoRapid or Humalog) at mealtimes (the bolus doses) with a long acting insulin like Lantus or Levemir (the basal doses) to achieve blood glucose control in a similar way to people who use an insulin pump.

Beta Cells are found in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Their function is to produce insulin.

Blood Glucose Level is the amount of glucose or sugar found in the food at any given time. It is measured in either mg/dL or mmol/L

Blood Glucose Meters are hand-held machines designed to test blood glucose levels. A special strip or test strip is inserted into the machine and a small drop of blood is then added to the strip. The machine analyzes the blood and gives a reading of the glucose level of the blood usually in a manner of seconds. These small machines allow a person with diabetes greater control and understanding of what is happening in their body at all times.

Blood Pressure refers to the pressure exerted by blood flow on artery walls. People with diabetes should aim for a blood pressure of 130 / 80 or lower. 

Bolus is insulin you give yourself in one go, for a reason - usually because you are about to eat carbohydrate, or because you want to lower your blood glucose level. The latest pumps can give this insulin quickly, or spread out over a time. You need to find out for yourself how much insulin you need for different foods, and how much 1 unit will lower your blood glucose level.

Borderline Diabetes  is a term no longer used. It now refers to impaired glucose tolerance.

a Certified Diabetes Educator

Continuous Glucose Monitoring System - a system using a small sensor placed under the skin that records glucose levels on a real time basis.

CHO, Carb or  Carbohydrates. CHO is its chemical name, since it is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. A carbohydrate in its most simplest terms is the amount of “sugar” in food. It breaks down into glucose during digestion and raises blood glucose levels.

C-Peptide is formed in the beta cells of the pancreas therefore a test of C-peptide levels indicates the amount of beta cell function occurring in the pancreas

Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion. The full medical name for insulin pump therapy

Canula is a small, usually plastic devise that is at the end of an infusion set.  It is the part of the insulin pump infusion set that enters the body and allows the insulin through.

Carb Count
 refers to the totalling the amount of carbohydrates in a meal.  This amount is usually then matched to the amount of fast acting insulin required.

Cartridge is the reservoir that holds the insulin in an insulin pump

Celiac disease
(also spelled coeliac) An autoimmune disorder of the upper intestinal mucosa that is triggered by cereal proteins, especially wheat gluten, and which leads to a malabsorption of all nutrients, primarily of fat. It can be detected by the presence of anti-transglutaminase antibodies. If these are positive it would be justifiable to take a mucosal biopsy and if this is positive, then dietary treatment is all that is required. About 5% of people with autoimmune diabetes have positive anti-transglutaminase antibodies. Celiac syndrome may also be part of the Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome

Cerebral Edema 
A build-up of fluids in the brain. A serious and often fatal complication of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Cholesterol is a type of fat which occurs naturally in our bodies and is also found in animal fats. Too much saturated fat and dietary cholesterol may be associated with arteriosclerosis Chronic refers to a disease or disorder that is present over long periods of time often the remainder of a lifetime of an individual

Combination (Extended) Bolus
occurs when a portion of the insulin is delivered via the insulin pump right away and a second amount is delivered over a specific period of time.

Correction bolus This is an amount of insulin taken to bring down a high blood glucose level into a normal range. It is done by first figuring out your insulin sensitivity factor—how much insulin will reduce your blood glucose by what amount.

is a compound present in the muscles and blood that is passed in the urine. A creatinine clearance test' is a diagnostic test for kidney function

Diabetes Control and Complication Trial.(DCCT)
A 10-year US study, published in the early 1990s, that established a statistical link that poorly controlled diabetes causes complications

DKA or Diabetic Ketoacidosis
is the presence of ketones in the blood. In diabetes, this can progress to the complex and serious condition of DKA. If untreated, this leads to coma and death

Diabetes Mellitus 

DOD refer to the date of diagnosis

Dawn Phenomenon
refers to a early morning rise in blood glucose levels largely caused by the large release of growth hormones that normally occurs during this time. The growth hormones  block the insulin’s effect during this time.

is a state in which there is excessive loss of water from body tissues. It can occur when the blood sugar levels are high for long periods of time. It can also result from inadequate water intake, or excessive sweating, vomiting or diarrhea. Symptoms of dehydration can include extreme thirst, irritability, confusion and flushed, dry skin.

Another name for glucose (sugar). Dextrose/glucose tablets are often used to treat mild or moderate hypoglycemia.

Diabetic Retinopathy
is a disease in which the small blood vessels (capillaries) in the back of the eye (retina) may bleed or form new vessels. This condition usually occurs in people with long-standing diabetes. Regular eye examinations are an important part of diabetes management

is a condition in which the body either cannot produce insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces

is a method of removing waste products and excess water from the body when the kidneys no longer function adequately Dietician is an expert in nutrition who can assist people plan the kinds and amounts of foods that promote a healthy lifestyle 

Endo or Endocrinologist
is a diabetes specialist

End Stage Renal Disease

Euglycemia A normal level of blood glucose (sugar)

Exchange Lists  A grouping of foods by type to help people on special diets to more easily follow their diet. A person can exchange, trade or substitute one serving of food in that group for a serving of another food in the same group. Foods are grouped as bread/starch, meat, fruit, fats, vegetables, and milk.

A form of nerve damage that affects the stomach and intestines, causing them to take too long to empty their contents. Diabetes is a major cause of gastroparesis.

Geographic Tongue In a tongue affected by geographic tongue, there are red patches on the surface of the tongue bordered by grayish white. The papillae are missing from the reddish areas and overcrowded in the grayish white borders. The small patches may disappear and reappear in a short period of time (hours or days), and change in shape or size. This can occur in people with compromised immune systems such as those living with Type 1 diabetes. While there is no known cure, anti-histamines have been used to treat the ailment. Please consult with your doctor before starting treatment! (definition provided by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_tongue
 geographic tongue

Gestational Diabetes
occurs when there is any degree of impaired glucose regulation which is first recognised during pregnancy. After the birth the problems often disappear but these women do run a higher than normal risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

is a hormone produced by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to produce large amounts of glucose. It is given by injection for hypoglycemia and generally restores blood sugar within five to ten minutes

Glucose is a simple form of sugar that acts as fuel for the body. It is produced during digestion of carbohydrate and carried to the cells in the blood.

Glycemic Index
is a scale that ranks carbohydrate-rich foods by how much they raise blood glucose levels compared to glucose or white bread. 

Glycemic response
is the speed at which the food is able to increase your blood glucose level.  It can be influenced by many factors, including how much food you eat, how much the food is processed or even how the food is prepared 

is the main carbohydrate storage material, which is stored in the liver and muscles for use when energy is required.

Hemoglobin A1c
glycated hemoglobin  is a form of hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule of the blood) that reflects the average blood glucose concentration over a three month period. A high percentage of hemoglobin A1c indicates poor control while a low percentage indicates good control.

Honeymoon Period
is the period of time after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes when the dose of insulin may need to be reduced due to remaining or recovered insulin secretion from the pancreas. This period can last weeks, months or years

are the substances released into the bloodstream from a gland or organ. Hormones control growth and development, reproduction, sexual characteristics, blood sugar levels and influence the way the body uses and stores energy.

Human Insulin
is a bio-synthetic insulin created in the 1990s using recombinant-DNA technology.

Hyper or Hyperglycaemia.
hyperglycaemic or high blood sugar occurs when there is too little insulin and too much food or glucose.  This is when a correction bolus/injection may be used (as directed by a physician).  Symptoms often include dizziness, blurred vision, inability to concentrate, intense thirst, and a frequent need to urinate.

is the medical term for high blood pressure.

Hypo or Hypoglycaemia,
hypoglycaemic, insulin shock or low blood sugar occurs when the body has too much insulin and not enough glucose.  Fast acting glucose must be given to the patient immediately. Symptoms include fatigue, listlessness, hunger, blurred vision, and dizziness.

Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Prediabetes is a condition that is marked by high blood sugar levels. In prediabetes, blood sugar levels, also called glucose levels, are higher than normal, but not considered high enough to qualify as type 2 diabetes

or Insulin On Board. This reflects the delay while insulin is being  absorbed. Smart pumps will guess for you how much insulin you have already taken, but which has not yet worked. This helps get a more accurate correction bolus.  This can also be figured out manually.

is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood.

Insulin Pump (CSSI)is a portable, battery-operated device that delivers a specific amount of insulin through a small needle inserted under the skin. It can be programmed to deliver constant doses throughout the day and / or deliver extra insulin as required throughout the day. It is not an artificial pancreas. It does not work independently of the operator at this point. You must work with your diabetes care team to set up the insulin pump to your personal needs.

Insulin Sensitivity helps to know how sensitive to insulin you are. Insulin sensitivity helps to determine the total daily insulin dose, including the background insulin, carbohydrate Humalog/Regular (see the 500/450 Rule), and sliding scale Humalog/Regular (see the 1800/1500 Rule). Insulin sensitivity is one measure of one's risk for heart disease. The more sensitive one is in general, the lower the risk for heart problems. For those with Type I diabetes, insulin sensitivity can be estimated by filling in the blanks below:
Your weight (lbs.) / 4 =_____ units
Your total daily insulin dose (all insulins) =_____ units
The answer from line 1, (weight divided by 4) gives your estimated need for insulin. If your actual insulin dose on line 2 is close to this number, and you have good control, you have a normal sensitivity to insulin.
If line 2 is less than line 1 (and your control is good), you have excellent insulin sensitivity.
If line 2 is much greater than line 1, your insulin sensitivity may be lower or you may be on too much insulin. (Are you having frequent insulin reactions?)
With Type II diabetes, determining sensitivity to insulin is more complicated because everyone varies in how much insulin their own pancreas produces and in how resistant they are to insulin.

Insulin Shock  see hypoglycaemia

is a system that allows injections to be delivered through a "port" placed in the skin every 2-3 days.

Ischemia is an inadequate supply of blood to body tissues or organs. It can occur if blood vessels are narrowed or constricted.

Islets of Langerhans
are clusters of cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, glucagons and pancreatic polypeptide

JDRF or Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
formerly the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation. This is a research driven organization dedicated to finding a cure for Type 1 diabetes.

Juvenile Diabetes
now called Type 1 Diabetes

are chemicals produced by the liver when the body cannot use glucose and must break down fat for energy. Ketones can poison and even kill body cells. When ketones build up, the body gets rid of them in the urine. Ketones that accumulate in the body over long periods of time can lead to serious illness and coma.

Having ketone bodies in the urine; a warning sign of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Ketotic Hypoglycemia A poorly-understood disorder of childhood, marked by hypoglycemia and ketosis. There is carbohydrate deprivation, with consequent dependence on fat stores for energy. Ketotic hypoglycemia can often be effectively treated by simple dietary changes involving frequent feedings of carbohydrate and protein.

Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe complication of diabetes that is the result of high blood sugar levels and ketones often associated with poor control of diabetes or as a complication due to other illnesses.

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults also known as Type 1.5 diabetes is a slower form of Type 1 diabetes in which only one or two types of antibodies attack the beta cells that make insulin.

Labile Diabetes 
A term used to indicate when a person's blood glucose (sugar) level often swings quickly from high to low and from low to high.  Also known as brittle diabetes.

Limited Joint Mobility  A form of arthritis involving the hand; it causes the fingers to curve inward and the skin on the palm to tighten and thicken. This condition mainly affects people with IDDM

Lipodystrophy is the loss of fatty tissue that can occur as a result of repeated insulin injections in the same area.  When experiencing a lot of highs, this can be one area to check—watch that you are not injecting or infusing insulin into an area that has these lumps as insulin will not be absorbed properly from there.

Low Density Lipoprotien Cholesterol (LDL-C)
Particles that carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body for use by cells. LDL-C is commonly known as “bad” cholesterol because high levels of LDL-C lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because most people with diabetes are at very high risk of heart disease, it is very important to achieve recommended LDL-C targets (2.0 mmol/L or lower for most people with diabetes). This often requires medication.

or Multiple Daily Injectionsrefer to the use of three or more injections of insulin through the course of the day.

or Milligrams per decilitre. A unit for measuring blood glucose levels most commonly used in the US.  To convert to mmol/L, divide this number by 18.

or Millimoles per litre. An alternate unit for measuring blood glucose levels. To covert to mg/dL multiply the mmol/L reading by 18

Metabolic Syndrome
is a combination of health conditions that place a person at high risk for heart disease. These conditions are type 2 diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood), and obesity. According to theory, all of these conditions are associated with high blood insulin levels, and it is claimed that the underlying problem in patients with the Metabolic Syndrome is faulty insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. It was previously called Syndrome X.

or Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young MODY is not Type 1 or Type 2 but is closest to Type 2 in its effects on your body. MODY can be distinguished from type 1 diabetes by the absence of diabetes antibodies (anti-insulin, anti-islet, anti-GAD). In non-obese, but not in obese individuals, MODY can be differentiated from type 2 diabetes by the absence of insulin resistance. MODY2 can be discriminated from the other types of MODY because it leads to only mild glucose intolerance. Presence of renal disease can be indicative of MODY5, but may also be a sign of diabetic nephropathy.

Genetic testing can establish a firm diagnosis of MODY in patients of any age, based on a single blood draw. Genetic testing is also useful for family screening, as it can detect mutations associated with MODY in individuals who are not yet diabetic. In these individuals, increased vigilance and changes in lifestyle may help to prevent the persistence of unrecognized hyperglycemia.[i]

There are 6 different types of MODY which vary in severity and treatment. Some can be controlled by diet while others require pills or insulin. Doctors are most likely to treat MODY with pills in belief that their patients would prefer this method of treatment over injections but most people living with the disease find that insulin is their best form of treatment. [ii] MODY is genetic with penetrance of 80 to 95%. Patients have a nonobese body habitus and the so-called metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia is absent. A child of a parent with MODY will have a 50% chance of developing this disease themselves.

What does MODY look like?
People with MODY are usually of normal weight, at least until shortly before their diabetes diagnosis. This can lead to their being misdiagnosed as having a late-onset form of Type 1 diabetes (LADA). However, people with MODY do not have the GAD antibodies characteristic of people with LADA. People with one of the forms of MODY that primarily affect the secretion of insulin in response to a meal may spend years with near-normal fasting blood sugar test values and very high post-meal blood sugars.

The age of onset of diabetes in at least one form of MODY depends on the parent who passed on the mutant allele. It is significantly younger if it was the mother who passed on the gene and if she had diabetes during the pregnancy. That may be because exposure to high blood sugars in the womb affects the expression of the MODY gene in the offspring. If you have been diagnosed with gestational diabetes when not overweight and your child develops pre-diabetes or diabetes in her 20s without obesity, MODY may be a possibility. MODY may develop at any age up to 55. Women with MODY are often first diagnosed during a first pregnancy. Though not obese, they develop gestational diabetes very quickly.

People with MODY often are not insulin resistant. They will respond to very small doses of insulin or drugs that stimulate insulin production. In one version of MODY however, high blood sugars apparently cause insulin resistance, though the genetic defect is thought to be the primary cause of the diabetes.

Some versions of MODY respond very well to sulfonylurea drugs, as the gene appears to cause hypersensitivity to their stimulation of the beta cells but these drugs are controversial. The new incretin hormone drugs, Byetta and Januvia, may also work very well for people with the kinds of MODY that respond strongly to the sulfonylurea drugs. People with severe MODY are sometimes misdiagnosed as having Type 1 diabetes. However people with MODY often make normal or near-normal amounts of C-peptide despite having very high blood sugars.

Most importantly, people with MODY who are treated as Type 1 diabetics tend to stay in the "honeymoon period" and continue to use very small doses of insulin for many years after diagnosis--less than .5units/kg of body weight. They also do NOT have GAD-antibodies. In one common form of MODY, fasting blood sugar is normal, but insulin secretion begins to fail as blood sugars go over 144 mg/dl (8mmol/L). This can lead to a difficult to diagnose form of diabetes as fasting blood sugar may remain normal for many years. People with one common form of MODY, where the defect is in the production of Glucokinase, have mildly elevated fasting blood sugars which cannot be lowered, however this form of diabetes rarely progresses and can be controlled with diet. It rarely causes the severe complications of other forms. In MODY-3 people will spill glucose into their urine at very low blood sugar levels--140 mg/dl(7.8 mmol/L) or less. People with this form of MODY often develop kidney disease, and may even have signs of kidney disease before they are diagnosed with diabetes. 

Four main characteristics

1. Diabetes presents at a young age, usually less than 25 years of age but can occur into the mid 50s.

2.MODY runs in families through several generations. A parent with MODY has a 50% chance of passing on MODY to their child. This is called autosomal dominant inheritance.

3.People with MODY do not always need insulin treatment and can often be treated with diabetes pills or meal planning alone.

4.People with MODY do not produce enough insulin; this is different to Type 2 diabetes where people frequently produce lots of insulin but don’t respond to their insulin.

Six Known Types of MODY

* MODY 1 (HNF-4?) Rare form of MODY. Similar effects to MODY 3. The pancreas producing slowly decreasing amounts of insulin means patients usually respond very well to oral sulfonylurea drugs, whose job it is to whip those beta cells into producing more insulin. Being a progressive disease with increasing beta-cell failure it may eventually require more stringent measures in the form of insulin therapy.

*MODY 2 (Glucokinase) Causes between 10-65% of MODY. Causes mild diabetes that rarely causes complications. Here the gene responsible for the body's recognition of high blood glucose levels is faulty. Due to the fact that it is a very mild form of the disease and is not progressive it is usually possible to treat it with diet and exercise alone. Often diagnosed in childhood or pregnancy.

* MODY 3 (HNF-1 alpha) Causes between 20-80% of MODY. Causes progressive diabetes and patients may get diabetes complications. Usually diagnosed after puberty. Sensitive to sulfonylurea drugs. The pancreas producing slowly decreasing amounts of insulin they usually respond very well to oral sulfonylurea drugs, whose job it is to whip those beta cells into producing more insulin. Being a progressive disease with increasing beta-cell failure it may eventually require more stringent measures in the form of insulin therapy.

* MODY 4 (IPF-1) Rare form of MODY. Seems to produce relatively mild diabetes. The pancreas producing slowly decreasing amounts of insulin they usually respond very well to oral sulfonylurea drugs, whose job it is to whip those beta cells into producing more insulin. Being a progressive disease with increasing beta-cell failure it may eventually require more stringent measures in the form of insulin therapy.

* MODY 5 (HNF-1 beta) Rare form of MODY. Associated with kidney disease that is often diagnosed before diabetes. This may need an assortment of different treatments due to it's effect on the different organs. There is a currently experimental transplant procedure, where the islet cells of a healthy pancreas are placed into a non-functional pancreas, that may eventually be an option for MODY diabetics, but as stated, it is still at the experimental stage.

* MODY 6 (Neuro- D1) Extremely rare form of MODY. Severity of diabetes unknown as yet.


[iv] http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/clinic/mody.htm


Nephropathy is any disease of the kidneys. Kidney damage caused by diabetes, called diabetic nephropathy, can occur in several ways. The typical form of diabetic nephropathy, called diabetic glomerulosclerosis, has large amounts of urine protein, hypertension, and is slowly progressive. It usually doesn't occur until after many years of diabetes, and can be delayed by tight control of the blood sugar. Usually the best lab test for early detection of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of microalbumin in the urine.

is a disease of the nervous system. Many people who have had diabetes for long periods of time will have nerve damage.  The three major forms of nerve damage are peripheral neuropathy (the most common form which mainly affects the feet and legs), autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy.

Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring
A way to measure blood glucose without having to prick the finger to obtain a blood sample.

Pancreas An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is about the size of a hand. It has two major responsibilities--part of it makes insulin so that they body can use glucose for energy and another part makes enzymes that help the body to digest food.  Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans.  The cells in these areas each have a special purpose.  The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin.  There are also PP cells and the D1 cells, about which little is known.

Pancreas Transplant
A surgical procedure that involves replacing the pancreas of a person who has diabetes with a healthy pancreas that can make insulin. The healthy pancreas comes from a donor who has just died or from a living relative. A person can donate half a pancreas and still live normally. At present, pancreas transplants are usually performed in persons with Type 1 diabetes who have severe complications. This is because after the transplant the patient must take immunosuppressive drugs that are highly toxic and may cause damage to the body

Two or more amino acids linked together chemically. If the number of amino acids is relatively great, the string is sometimes called a polypeptide; a very long string of amino acids is called a protein.

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
Disease in the large blood vessels of the arms, legs and feet. People who have had diabetes for a long time may get this because the major blood vessels in their arms, legs and feet are blocked and these limbs do not receive enough blood.  The signs of PVD are aching pains in the extremities (especially when walking) and foot sores that heal slowly.  Although people with diabetes cannot always avoid PVD, doctors say that they have a better chance of avoiding it if they take good care of their feet, do not smoke, and keep both their blood pressure and diabetes under good control.

a swing to high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood after have a low level (also referred to as the Somogyi effect).

Renal Threshold
When the blood is holding so much of a substance such as glucose (sugar) that the kidneys allow the excess to spill into the urine. This is also called "kidney threshold," "spilling point," and "leak point."

Registered Disability Savings Plan...
a non-tax deductible savings plan administered by a financial institution.  Earnings in this plan are tax sheltered.  To be eligible for the RDSP, you must qualify for the Disability Tax Credit.  If you are deemed no longer eligible for the DTC, you must pay back all funds given through the CDSG or CDSB by December 31 following the first full year in which you are considered "not qualified".  Those who do qualify can contribute up to $200,000 over their lifetime.  Contributions must be made by December 31 each year.  Those in higher income brackets may have contributions met by the federal government in the form of a Canadian Disability Savings Grant (CDSG) (up to $3500 per year).  Low income earners are eligible for the Canadian Disability Savings Bonds (CDSB) (up to $1000 per year).  Grants and Bonds must stay in the plan for at least 10 years or they must be paid back in full.  They will only be paid until the beneficiary is 49 years of age. 

Secondary Diabetes
When a person gets diabetes because of another disease or because of taking certain drugs or chemicals.

Super Bolus.  A concept derived by John Walsh which involves taking the insulin that will later be given in basal form and adding it upfront in a larger, "super bolus".

An infection of the mouth. In people with diabetes, this infection may be caused by high levels of glucose (sugar) in mouth fluids, which helps the growth of fungus that causes the infection. Patches of whitish-colored skin in the mouth are signs of this disease.

Untethered Insulin Regimen the use of a long lasting insulin (such as Levemir or Lantus) with basal amounts delivered through an insulin pump.

Unsaturated Fat The "good" fat found in food.  Substituting good fats for saturated fats is a good way to reduce cholesterol levels.

: a test of a urine sample that can reveal many problems of the urinary tract and other body systems. The sample may be observed for color, cloudiness, concentration; signs of drug use; chemical composition, including glucose; the presence of protein, blood cells, or germs; or other signs of disease.

Wolfram Syndrome
is a syndrome comprising diabetes insipidus, a mild form of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. It is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder, with the chromosomal abnormality on the short arm of chromosome 4. Also called DIDMOAD, for diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness.

: A nutritive sweetener used in dietary foods. It is a sugar alcohol that the body uses slowly and contains fewer calories than table sugar.






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